Auxiliary Verb

Januari 6, 2011

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs are auxiliary verbs that are grammatically functioning form or give additional meaning to the sentence. Generally, auxiliary verbs used in conjunction with main verbs ( main verbs ) and helped form the grammatical structure of a sentence.

There are three auxiliary verbs : to be, to do, and to have . Be, do, and have had no meaning if it stands alone as the auxiliary verbs , despite that in the Indonesian language is generally interpreted as “medium”, “has”, “do” , or “really”.

To Be
Auxiliary verbs are commonly used be, am, is, are, was, were the resource persons, being, been. As an auxiliary verbs , to be commonly used with past participle to make the sentence passive , and with the present participle to create a sentence continuous .

– He is watching TV.
– We are teaching you about Helping verbs.
– Small fish are eaten by big fish.
– He was killed in the war.
– The agencies were the resource persons completing the inventories.
– I will of uterus soon be seeing.
– He Had only been Trying to help.
– The house is being painted.

To Do
Auxiliary verbs are used do, does, did . As an auxiliary verbs , to do ordinary shared main verbs ( main verbs ) to form a sentence a question or negative sentence. And also used to apply pressure or to avoid repetition of the main verb. Auxiliary verbs are also called dummy operator or dummy auxiliary .

– Do you like bananas?
– I do not feel like going out tonight.
– Where do you live?
– Do not forget to write.
– It does not matter if you win or lose.
– I Did not know what to do.
– What did you do with That notebook?
– He Speaks faster Than she does.
– I do understand.

To Have
Auxiliary verbs used are have, has, Had . As an auxiliary verbs , to have used along the main verbs to make sentences perfect .

– I have completed my work.
– She has acted in a movie.
– They had forgotten to send the letter.
– Our guests have arrived.
– Has anyone phoned?
– I hadn’t seen uterus for Fifteen years.
– Someone should have predicted these complications.


Be, do, and have also served as main verbs or verbs principal . Consider the following example below.
– She is a good singer. (Principal verb)
– She is singing. (Auxiliary verb)


Islamic Banking

Januari 3, 2011

World economic crisis that has lasted since 2008, has hit world economic giants, such as the United States and the blue continent, Europe. Market economic system in force has affected the destruction of the economic fundamentals of these countries. Free trade system has led to global imbalances. Export-oriented countries and importing countries do not have balance in the balance of trade. Resulting in current account deficits in some countries. An example is Uncle Sam’s country, the United States. As the development of an economic system dominated by the consumption sector, causing the need for some goods produced abroad increases. There is also a free foreign exchange system, which resulted in exchange rate / currency exchange rates each country change over time. Changes in currency exchange rates have pushed inflation resulted in rising prices of goods.

Economic instability in some countries, especially starting from the financial sector / banking, and then will affect the real sector. Monetary crisis in 1998 as an example due to the downfall of the banking sector. It is worth also understood that the financial sector in Indonesia is still categorized weak and heavily influenced by external factors and regional development. This is obviously not beneficial because it means the national economy is very dependent on economic conditions in other countries. Indonesia’s banking system is still adhered to the free foreign exchange system is also highly susceptible to exposure to the crisis appears suddenly. When you see the size of Indonesia’s foreign exchange reserves, currently at $ 76 billion (source: BI), is still a question mark whether the ability to counteract the possibility of spontaneous emergence of a systemic crisis.

Another system is needed that can overcome various shortcomings of conventional financial systems that had been accepted in modern countries worldwide. The system is based on justice, which does not allow for speculation, giving rise to uncertainty. Islamic banking system offers these things. In principle, Islamic banking system is a system that having the teachings of Islam, namely the banking system which knows no usury. Riba in question is of interest that are generally provided by conventional banks. Islamic banking system prioritizes profit-sharing mechanism in every transaction.
There are several advantages of the sharia-based banks, such as transaction systems in the form of profit sharing was much more favorable when compared with the system of interest. With the banking system of revenue sharing has proven a strong resistance against the shocks from the global financial system,

On the Islamic banking system, not the introduction of borrowing money directly. However, a partnership model of cooperation, such as such as profit sharing (mudharabah), the principle of equity participation (Musyarakah), the principle of sale and purchase (murabahah), and the principle of leasing (Ijarah).


Increased socialization is so great about the benefits offered Islamic banking be the key, especially for the segment of the religious community of Islam (Muslims). Islamic banking principles are derived from Islam but it applies universally. This means that any system of governance based on economic laws but not the version of Islam will be closed and only applies to Muslims.

The value of Islamic banking asset growth and showed a large increase. This shows the positive response of society to the existence of Islamic banks. However, to maintain continuity of growth and enhance the enthusiasm of the public about Islamic banking, it takes smart effort. Suppose that by inserting the Islamic banking program in religious-themed events, for example: teaching, tabligh akbar. The theme of economic and banking should be given continuously, thus empowering its people to continue to happen.

There’s also the displays the image or brand new, Islamic banking should be more open to the community and really menunnjukkan value / advantages. Improvement of human resources becomes one of the key so that Islamic banks can compete with commercial banks.

Indonesian Banking Architecture (API)

Januari 2, 2011

Indonesian Banking Architecture (API) is a basic framework of the Indonesian banking system that is comprehensive and provides direction, shape, and structure of the banking industry for the range of five to ten years into the future. The direction of policy development the banking industry in the future outlined in the API is based on a vision to achieve a healthy banking system, strong and efficient financial system in order to create stability in order to help drive national economic growth.
Rests of the blue print of the national banking needs and as a continuation of the banking restructuring program that has been running since 1998, Bank Indonesia on January 9, 2004 has launched the API as an overall framework of banking industry development policy directions Indonesia in the future. The launch of the API is not apart from the efforts of the Government and Bank Indonesia to rebuild Indonesia’s economy through the publication of the Government white paper in accordance with Presidential Instruction No. 5 of 2003, when the API becomes one of the main program in the white paper.
Focused on the fundamental desire to have a stronger banking system and by taking into account inputs obtained in implementing the API during the last two years, Bank Indonesia felt the need to improve the programs of activities listed in the API. Completion of the API activity programs are not apart from the developments that have occurred in national and international economy. Completion of the API programs, among other strategies include more specific about the development of Islamic banking, BPR, and UMKM in the future so that the API is expected to have a more complete program of activities and a comprehensive banking system as a whole related to commercial banks and rural banks, both conventional and Islamic, and development of UMKM….

Shadow Banking System

Januari 2, 2011

The shadow banking system or the shadow financial system consists of non-depository banks and other financial entities (e.g., investment banks, hedge funds, and money market funds) that grew in size dramatically after the year 2000 and play an increasingly critical role in lending businesses the money necessary to operate. By June 2008, the U.S. shadow banking system was approximately the same size as the U.S. traditional depository banking system. The equivalent of a bank run occurred within the shadow banking system during 2007-2008, when investors stopped providing funds to (or through) many entities in the system. Disruption in the shadow banking system is a key component of the ongoing subprime mortgage crisis.

By definition, shadow institutions do not accept deposits like a depository bank and therefore are not subject to the same regulations. Familiar examples of shadow institutions included Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers. Other complex legal entities comprising the system include hedge funds, SIVs, conduits, money funds, monolines, investment banks, and other non-bank financial institutions.

Shadow banking institutions are typically intermediaries between investors and borrowers. For example, an institutional investor like a pension fund may be willing to lend money, while a corporation may be searching for funds to borrow. The shadow banking institution will channel funds from the investor(s) to the corporation, profiting either from fees or from the difference in interest rates between what it pays the investor(s) and what it receives from the borrower.

Many “shadow bank” like institutions and vehicles have emerged in American and European markets, between the years 2000 and 2008, and have come to play an important role in providing credit across the global financial system.[1]

In a June 2008 speech, U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, then President and CEO of the NY Federal Reserve Bank, described the growing importance of the shadow banking system: “In early 2007, asset-backed commercial paper conduits, in structured investment vehicles, in auction-rate preferred securities, tender option bonds and variable rate demand notes, had a combined asset size of roughly $2.2 trillion. Assets financed overnight in triparty repo grew to $2.5 trillion. Assets held in hedge funds grew to roughly $1.8 trillion. The combined balance sheets of the then five major investment banks totaled $4 trillion. In comparison, the total assets of the top five bank holding companies in the United States at that point were just over $6 trillion, and total assets of the entire banking system were about $10 trillion.” In other words, lending through the shadow banking system slightly exceeded lending via the traditional banking system based on outstanding balances.

Shadow institutions are not subject to the same safety and soundness regulations as depository banks, meaning they do not have to keep as much money in the proverbial vault relative to what they borrow and lend. In other words, they can have a very high level of financial leverage, with a high ratio of debt relative to the liquid assets available to pay immediate claims. High leverage magnifies profits during boom periods and losses during downturns.

Shadow institutions like investment banks borrowed from investors in short-term, liquid markets (such as the money market and commercial paper markets), meaning that they would have to frequently repay and borrow again from these investors. On the other hand, they used the funds to lend to corporations or to invest in longer-term, less liquid (i.e., harder to sell) assets. In many cases, the long-term assets purchased were the mortgage-backed securities sometimes called “toxic assets” or “legacy assets” in the press. These assets declined significantly in value as housing prices declined and foreclosures increased during 2007-2009.

In the case of investment banks, this reliance on short-term financing required them to return frequently to investors in the capital markets to refinance their operations. When the housing market began to deteriorate and the ability to obtain funds from investors through investments such as mortgage-backed securities declined, these investment banks were unable to fund themselves. Investor refusal or inability to provide funds via the short-term markets was a primary cause of the failure of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers during 2008.

In technical terms, these institutions are subject to market risk, credit risk and especially liquidity risk, since their liabilities are short-term while their assets are more long-term and illiquid. This creates a potential problem in that they are not depositary institutions and do not have direct or indirect access to the support of their central bank in its role as lender of last resort. Therefore, during periods of market liquidity, they could go bankrupt if unable to refinance their short-term liabilities. They were also highly leveraged. This meant that disruptions in credit markets would make them subject to rapid deleveraging, meaning they would have to pay off their debts by selling their long-term assets.

The securitization markets frequently tapped by the shadow banking system started to close down in the spring of 2007 and nearly shut-down in the fall of 2008. More than a third of the private credit markets thus became unavailable as a source of funds. In February 2009, Ben Bernanke stated that securitization markets remained effectively shut, with the exception of conforming mortgages, which could be sold to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner stated that the “combined effect of these factors was a financial system vulnerable to self-reinforcing asset price and credit cycles.”


Astra Honda Motor’s Profile

Desember 28, 2010

PT. Astra Honda Motor


PT Astra Honda Motor (AHM) is the pioneer of Indonesia’s motorcycle industry. Founded on June 11, 1971 with initial name of PT Federal Motor, whose stock is majority owned by PT Astra International. At that time, PT Federal Motor only assemble, while the components are imported from Japan in CKD (completely knock down).

Type the first motorcycle in production Honda is a business type, S 90 Z 4-stroke engine with a capacity of 90cc. Total production in the first year for one year only 1500 units, but jumped to around 30 thousand in the year and continues to grow today. The motorcycle continued to grow and become one of the mainstay of transportation in Indonesia.
Government policy in terms of localization of auto components to encourage PT Federal Motor producing various motorcycle components Hondatahun 2001 in the country through several subsidiaries, including PT Honda Federal (1974) which produces the basic components such as the Honda motorcycle frame, wheels, exhaust and so on , PT Showa Manufacturing Indonesia (1979) which specifically produces shock absorbers, PT Astra Honda Engine Manufacturing (1984) that produce motorcycle engines as well as PT Federal Izumi Mfg. (1990) which is specialized producing piston.
Along with the development of economic conditions and growth of the motorcycle market place changes in the composition of ownership in this Honda motorcycle manufacturer. In 2000 PT Federal Motor and several subsidiaries in the merger to become one with the name of PT Astra Honda Motor, the composition of its shareholding to 50% owned by PT Astra International Tbk and 50% owned by Honda Motor Co. Japan.
Currently, PT Astra Honda Motor has 3 facilities assembly plant, the first factory is located Sunter, North Jakarta, which also serves as the headquarters. The second factory is located in Pegangsaan Dua, Kelapa Gading, as well as the factory to 3 are at once the most sophisticated factory located in the MM 2100 West Cikarang, Bekasi. Factory to 3 is a new assembly plant facility that began operating since 2005.
With all these facilities of PT Astra Honda Motor currently has a production capacity of 3 million units of motorcycles per year, to demand the motorcycle market in Indonesia continues to increase.
One of the peak performance achieved by PT Astra Honda Motor is the attainment of production to 20 million in 2007. This achievement represents the first successful accomplishment achieved by the motorcycle industry in Indonesia, even to the level of ASEAN. In the achievement of Honda motorcycle production is 20 million units of the third, after the Honda motorcycle factory in China and India.
To support the needs and satisfaction pelannggan Honda motorcycles, while PT Astra Honda Motor in dealer showrooms boosted by 1600 is coded H1 sales, service or repair service 3800 AHASS (Astra Honda Authorized Service Station) with the code H2, and 6500 spare parts outlets or H, which is ready to serve millions of the use of Honda motorcycles in Indonesia.
Motorcycle industry is now a major industry in Indonesia. Employees of PT Astra Honda Motor alone currently numbers around 13,000 people, plus 130 vendors and suppliers as well as thousands of other networks, all of which provides the economic impact of a chain of extraordinary. The entire economic chain is expected to memberika employment opportunities to about 500 thousand people. PT Astra Honda Motor will continue to work to produce the means of transport wheel 2 is fun, safe and economically in line with expectations and needs of the people of Indonesia.


Consumer Growth motorcycles increased remarkable. In the midst of competition is so sharp due to the many brand new arrivals, Honda motorcycle that had long been in Indonesia, with all its advantages, still dominate the market and simultaneously meet the transport needs a strong, efficient and ekonomis.Menjawab these challenges, organizations are behind the success of Honda motorcycles in Indonesia continues to strengthen itself.
PT Astra Honda Motor is the synergy benefits of technology and marketing network in Indonesia, a developing partnership between Honda Motor Company Limited, Japan and PT Astra International Tbk, Indonesia.
Honda Motor technological excellence recognized throughout the world and has been proven on many occasions, both on the highway or on the track racing. Honda is also developing technologies that can address the needs of customers which are the engine “naughty” and fuel efficient, making it the pioneer of an economical two-wheeled vehicles.
No wonder, if the resale price of Honda motorcycles remain tinggi.Astra International has a comprehensive knowledge about the needs of motorcycle users in Indonesia, thanks to network marketing and extensive experience. Astra also able to facilitate the purchase and provide after sales service such that the more superior brand Honda.


November 3, 2010

I. Identify the correct determines in the following sentences !

1. Television

my television was stolen by a robber last night.


2. Car

I bought a new red car yesterday.


3. News

Lately, there was a lot of news about the misdeeds of the artist.


4. Geography

Faculty of Geography, Padjajaran University, will re-hold National Geography Olympiad for Senior High Schools and Junior High School from September 12 – 28.


5. Atmosphere

Many couples want to go to Paris because the atmosphere is very romantic.


6. Person

To be a good person, we must kind to the other person by helping them in difficult situation.

7. Water

I need a glass of water when i choke.


8. Pencil

I give  5 pencil to him because he had helped me do my job.


9. Food

My mother bought some food for lunch yesterday.


10. Tooth

I will have toothache if i ate all of chocolate which you gave to me.


11. Soap

We can buy natural soap in mini market nearby.

12. Soup

I like to eat a bowl of soup when the day is hot.


13. Cup

My Father usually drink a cup of coffee and read newspaper everymorning.


14. Money

The pickpocket had taken my money in public transportation.

15. Hydrogen

Hydrogen that contained in water, is  the most important for photosynthesis process.

16. Minute

I’ve been waiting for 20 minutes in front of your house.



Priska Septivia



Countable and Uncountable Nouns

November 3, 2010

II. Choose the correct determiners in the following sentences.

1. He doesn’t have ( many / much ) money.

He doesn’t have much money.

2. I would like ( a few / a little ) salt on my vegetables.

I would like a little salt on my vegetables.

3. She bought ( that / those ) cards last night.

She bought those cards last night.

4. There are ( less / fewer ) students in this room than in the next room.

There are fewer students in this room than in the next room.

5. There is ( too much / too many ) bad news on television tonight.

There is too many bad news on television tonight.

6. I do not want ( these / this ) water.

I do not want this water.

7. This is ( too many / too much ) information to learn.

This is too many information to learn.

8. A ( few / little ) people left early.

A few people left early.

9. Would you like ( less / fewer ) coffee than this?

Would you like less coffee than this?

10. This jacket costs ( too much / too many ).

This jacket costs too much.

Priska Septivia



Complain Letter

Oktober 7, 2010

Cahaya, co

PO BOX 2809



Dear Sir,


Thanks we’ve received my order on time. But, once held in check, there are 3 pieces of goods with No. 09 in a damaged condition.
We therefore beg to reduce the amount of our bill, and we will return the goods to your company. Thank you for your attention and cooperation.




Priska, co

Order Letter

Oktober 7, 2010

September 28, 2010


Cahaya, co

PO BOX 2809



Dear Sir,

We are very happy to receive information about the types and price of house furniture your production. So, we request be sent home furnishings in accordance with the code numbers:

No. 07            10 units

No. 09             15 units

No. 10             20 units

No. 28             10 units

Prices based on supply, as well as method of payment. Thank you for the confidence of existing customers.





Priska Septivia

Business Communication

Oktober 7, 2010

According to Everett M. Rogers, 2004, Communication is a process in which two or more persons to exchange information with one another, which in turn will come to mutual understanding.

Internal and external functions of Business Communication are:

1. To inform

2. To persuade

3. To promote goodwill

Internal consist of superiors, subordinates and co-workers.

Functions are:

• Issue and explain the rules / procedures

• Inform the progress of the company

• Encourage employees to do repairs

• Evaluation, reward and reprimand employees

External consist of consumers, suppliers, governments, and public.

Functions are:

• Persuade consumers to buy products

• Describe the product or service

• Clarifying the required specifications

• Promote the positive image the company

• Giving credit and collect the receivables

Written communication, (like announcement, memo, e-mail, letter, report, proposal etc) has advantages that permanent record, message that is planned, economical, easier distribution.

Oral Communication, (like conversations, phone calls, interviews, meetings, conferences) has advantages that direct feedback, can capture nonverbal, easy.

Barriers to business communication are:

• Closed communication climate, few employees know about our company, information, are owned by the leader.

• The organizational structure of large and tiered, distortion, delayed delivery, a different perception.

• Filtering, the message changed, shortened or extended.

• Do not believe, felt tricked, manipulated or treated unfairly.

• Rivalry between employees, keep each other information that can benefit others.

• Status and power.

Overcoming barriers to business communication are:

• Encourage open communication climate, encouraging input and feedback from employees

• Simplify the organizational structure, reducing layers, faster information

• Promote horizontal communication, improve morale, adding ideas.

• Creating a central issue, the employee could confirm a growing issue

• Making a formal channels such as newsletters to load the news / information company

Priska Septivia